| Egyptian Journal of Archeological and Restoration Studies


EJARS (Established 2011)

Attention (Memorial Issue)!

EJARS will publish a special memorial issue for the late Prof. Mohamed Abdelhady, Professor of restoration for his praiseworthy efforts at developing the school of restoration in the Arab World, with Issue managers (Shaaban Abd El-Aal -- Smm00@fayoum.edu.eg), (Mohamed Abdel Wadood Abdel Azim -- Maa02@fayoum.edu.eg), (Walid Ali Mohammed Mahmoud -- walid.ali@fayoum.edu.eg) and (Hamada Sadek -- Hsr00@fayoum.edu.eg).

Volume 10 ,issue 2 | Summer and Autumn 2020 | Pages : 135-152

ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLIMATIC HAZARDS AND THEIR IMPACTS ON THE CULTURAL HERITAGE OF EL-KHARGA OASIS, WESTERN DESERT, EGYPT

Document Type: Original Article

DOI: 10.21608/ejars.2020.131816

pages: 135-152

Authors:
Ismael, H. 1 , Abdel-Motamed 1 , M. & Abbas, W. 2

1 Geography dept., Faculty of Arts, New Valley Univ., Kharga, Egypt
2 Geography dept., Faculty of Arts, Ain Shames Univ., Cairo, Egypt

Abstract:
The archeological sites in El-Kharga oasis represent a tangible cultural heritage of outstanding universal value. Such monuments have suffered environmental and climatic hazards, especially the climate extreme and climate change throughout thousands of years. The current research focuses on determining the deterioration response that has occurred for hundreds of years to the impacts of environmental and climatic hazards in El-Kharga oasis since the Twenty-sixth Dynasty (664 BC) such as the temple of Hibis and beyond many Greek-Roman temples of 13 largest archeological sites (i.e. Umm El Dabadeb, Ain Amur, El-Nadoura, Kasr El-Zayyan, Doush temple, Deir El Monira, Ain El Labkha, Kasr El-Ghawieta, El Gib, Qasr El Somira, Al Tarakwa, El Dabashya and Remains of prehistoric times as in Gebel el-Teir). The current study aims to determine the environmental hazards that affect archaeological sites that represent a tangible cultural heritage in the study area under investigation, to understand and predict the type, nature, and magnitude of environmental hazards that affect the archeological sites in El-Kharga oasis. The fieldwork was accomplished with laboratory tests for some rock samples selected from sites with delegated weathering type and deterioration group of all the archeo-logical sites under investigation. Seventy-one samples have been tested by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), polarizing microscopy (PLM), and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analysis system (SEM-EDX). Based on the results of the current study, it has been concluded that most archaeological sites under investigations have reached the categories of severe damage, based on laboratory analyzes and periodic field studies. The present study concluded that there are several potential environmental hazards with significant impact on archaeological areas in El-Kharga oasis include (weathering hazard represents 45%, underground water hazard represents 18%, sand encroachment hazard represents 12%, human-induced hazard represents 15% and climate extremes and climate change hazards represent 10%) of total deterioration ratios, and in some cases, through graffiti.

Keywords:
El-Kharga oasis Geo-archaeological Environmental hazards Climatic hazards Tangible cultural heritage

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