A LABORATORY STUDY FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATMENT OF AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL RIFLE FROM DHAMAR MUSEUM, YEMEN
Document Type: Original article
Conservation dept., Faculty of Archaeology, Fayoum Univ., Fayoum, Egypt.
A rifle and its ammunition pouch, from Dhamar museum, Yemen, were selected for the study. While the rifle was made of iron and wood, its ammunition pouch was taken from an animal horn. Both are considered an artifcat.This composite structure, consisted, due to its complex nature, of more than one element, where each element tended to influence and be influenced mutually by one or more of the others elements.Hence, the current study aimed to examine the rifle and its ammunition pouch, as follows: studying metal corrosion; examining the wood, horn, and their deterioration phenomena; and explaining the mutual impact of the different materials. This helps us understand the serious problems of the corrosive phenomena and their degradation mechanisms. It also helps identify their structure in order to provide the scientific treatment and conservation of the organic parts (Tamarix, Syacamore wood and animal Horn), and inorganic parts (Iron and cupper). Therefore, samples from the rifle and its ammunition pouch were taken and examined by Light Microscope, Metallographic Microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, X-Ray Diffraction, and X-Ray Fluorescence. Accordingly, chemical cleaning was chosen for treatment (by Alcohol and Toluene for wood and citric acid for metal parts).
Composite artifacts; wood; Iron; Horn; Deterioration; Corrosion; surface; Cleaning; Consolidation
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