| Egyptian Journal of Archeological and Restoration Studies

EJARS (Established 2011)

Attention (Memorial Issue)!

EJARS will publish a special memorial issue for the late Prof. Mohamed Abdelhady, Professor of restoration for his praiseworthy efforts at developing the school of restoration in the Arab World, with Issue managers (Shaaban Abd El-Aal -- Smm00@fayoum.edu.eg), (Mohamed Abdel Wadood Abdel Azim -- Maa02@fayoum.edu.eg), (Walid Ali Mohammed Mahmoud -- walid.ali@fayoum.edu.eg) and (Hamada Sadek -- Hsr00@fayoum.edu.eg).

Volume 1 ,issue 1 | Winter and Spring 2011 | Pages : 61-72


Document Type: Original Article

DOI: 10.21608/EJARS.2011.7476

pages: 61-72

Parizek, A. 1 ; Abdel Moneim, A. 2 ; Fantle, M. 1 ; Westerman, J 3 .; Issawi, B. 4

1 Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
2 ,
2 Department of Geosciences,Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt
3 Department of Geosciences,Chicago, IL USA
4 Department of Geosciences,Cairo, Egypt

Among the many wars which depicted and documented at the ancient Egyptian history, little of them The Osireion, formerly concealed within a West Bank Nile terrace, is thought to have been an important building to the Ancient Egyptians. Its huge building blocks define a rectangular central stone island surrounded by a water-filled channel nearly 13m below the surrounding land surface. The channel was cleared of debris to 4.3m in 1925, but not to its original depth. Westerman (2008) successfully probed to 10.4m using a metal rod. Seismic data suggest its walls may extend 15m below the water table. Westerman listed six questions that elude archeologists and Egyptologists. Why, when and how was the Osireion built? Is in the interior of the island hollow? Why was it built in water? What is the source of the water? Eleven water samples were collected including the Nile, Osireion, two nearby idle dewatering wells, an active eastern French drain and six active water supply wells. ä18O and äD were measured by EAEA and PO4, Cl, Na+K and TDS by Sohag University. Factors such as evaporation, mixing, relative humidity, surface elevation and recharge climate can influence isotopic contents. The Nile sample appears most affected by evaporation, consistent with Lake Nasser¬ís great size and arid climate. Water samples fall below the GMWL and paleowater line in a region expected of modern precipitation in arid, low latitude climates. Sinai groundwater by contrast are isotopically lighter, suggestive of recharge at higher elevation during cooler climates. ä18O, äD, PO4, Cl, Na+K and TDS concentrations suggest Osireion waters are not easily explained by simple evaporation of any supposed end member. ä18O and äD concentrations are strikingly different from two nearby down groundwater gradient, dewatering wells most likely from a mixed source not typical of the ten other samples. Upfllowing from a semi-confined artesian aquifer, possibly also diffuse regional leakage through the Esna Shale are suggested.

Abydos temple; Groundwater; Isotope Data; Archaeology; Egypt

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