| Egyptian Journal of Archeological and Restoration Studies


EJARS (Established 2011)

Attention (Memorial Issue)!

EJARS will publish a special memorial issue for the late Prof. Mohamed Abdelhady, Professor of restoration for his praiseworthy efforts at developing the school of restoration in the Arab World, with Issue managers (Shaaban Abd El-Aal -- Smm00@fayoum.edu.eg), (Mohamed Abdel Wadood Abdel Azim -- Maa02@fayoum.edu.eg), (Walid Ali Mohammed Mahmoud -- walid.ali@fayoum.edu.eg) and (Hamada Sadek -- Hsr00@fayoum.edu.eg).

Volume 4 ,issue 1 | Winter and Spring 2014 | Pages : 35-46

CHARACTERIZATION AND EXAMINATION OF PIGMENTS, GROUNDS AND MEDIA FROM ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CARTONNAGE

Document Type: Original article

DOI: 10.21608/EJARS.2018.7272

pages: 35-46

Authors:
Abd El Aal, Sh.
Lecturer Conservation dept., Faculty of Archaeology, Fayoum Univ., Fayoum, Egypt

Abstract:
An ancient Egyptian gilded Cartonnage with polychrome decoration period to late - Greek- Roman period found in Saqqara, Egypt was examined to characterize structure components (pigments, grounds layers and binder. It was studied by Optical Microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. These techniques were used to identify the composition and morphology of grounds, nature of pigments and media used in the Cartonnage. The gilded Cartonnage is made on a double layer of plain weave linen soaked in gum. The first Coarse ground layer being a mixture of calcite and huntite. The second layer (finer one) being pure white calcite, the pigment colors employed were red, yellow and gold. Red was identified as hematite blended with gypsum, yellow as Calcite mixture with orpiment and gypsum. Gilded layer was identified as gold and silver with very thin layer of hematite and orpiment mixed with organic binder applied under the gilded layer. The binding medium on a double layer of plain weave linen , the coarse and the fine layer and binder in the yellow and red pigment areas was Arabic gum.

Keywords:
Cartonnage; Saqqara; Greek-Roman; XRD; Pigments; EDS; SEM

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