CHARACTERIZATION AND EXAMINATION OF PIGMENTS, GROUNDS AND MEDIA FROM ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CARTONNAGE
Document Type: Original article
Abd El Aal, Sh.
Lecturer Conservation dept., Faculty of Archaeology, Fayoum Univ., Fayoum, Egypt
An ancient Egyptian gilded Cartonnage with polychrome decoration period to late - Greek- Roman period found in Saqqara, Egypt was examined to characterize structure components (pigments, grounds layers and binder. It was studied by Optical Microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. These techniques were used to identify the composition and morphology of grounds, nature of pigments and media used in the Cartonnage. The gilded Cartonnage is made on a double layer of plain weave linen soaked in gum. The first Coarse ground layer being a mixture of calcite and huntite. The second layer (finer one) being pure white calcite, the pigment colors employed were red, yellow and gold. Red was identified as hematite blended with gypsum, yellow as Calcite mixture with orpiment and gypsum. Gilded layer was identified as gold and silver with very thin layer of hematite and orpiment mixed with organic binder applied under the gilded layer. The binding medium on a double layer of plain weave linen , the coarse and the fine layer and binder in the yellow and red pigment areas was Arabic gum.
Cartonnage; Saqqara; Greek-Roman; XRD; Pigments; EDS; SEM
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