ANALYTICAL STUDY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTTERY BREAD MOULDS FROM MATARIYA, AIN SHAMS
Document Type: Original Article
pages: 39 - 48
Abdel Rahim, N.S.
Lecturer Department of Conservation, Faculty of Archaeology, Fayoum University, Egypt
This study dealt with the Archaeological pottery shreds which were found in the excavation done by the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) in Matariya and Ain Shams regions. The analytical techniques used are the polarizing light microscope (PLM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) to determine the materials and manufacturing techniques used in these findings. It was found out that the discovered shreds comprise a group of pottery bread moulds belong to the Middle Kingdom (2040-1782 B.C). It was also found that the texture of the pottery were made using a large quantity of medium to coarse plant residues which is one of the most characteristic features of Nile fabrics. The colour of the pottery fracture is reddish to brown. The firing temperature was uneven and the hardness of the pottery is medium. The moulds were handmade shaping. All these characteristics are belonging to the Nile C group. The two moulds were fully restored including cleaning, construction, completion and coloring.
Pottery, bread mould, restoration, Mattarya, Ain shams, Middle Kingdom
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