OCCURRENCE OF FUNGI ON SOME DETERIORATED ANCIENT EGYPTIAN MATERIALS AND THEIR CONTROLLING BY ECOFRIENDLY PRODUCTS
Document Type: Original Article
Mansour, M. 1 & Ahmed, H. 1
1 Lecturer, Conservation dept., Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, Egypt.
Tuna el-Gabel's excavations represent a model of the Egyptian excavation's nature, in terms of variations and fluctuations in degrees of humidity and temperature throughout the year. The excavations contain various types of antiquities which are made from different organic and inorganic materials belong to different Egyptian eras, especially the Ptolemaic era. These conditions have an impact on finding a certain kind of fungus damage, which passively affects the antiquities in the excavations. This research presents a practical study meant to determine and define the fungi existed in the organic and inorganic antiquities in Tuna el- Gabel's excavations. Six samples were taken from different Archaeological objects from which 24 fungal strains representing 10 genera were isolated. The identified fungal isolates ; Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus humicola, Fusarium moniliforme, Chaetomium indicum, Helminthosporium sativum, Alternaria tenuis and Rhizopus sp. Comparative study using different types of fungicides and natural products on the isolated fungal species suggested that the complete inhibition of tested fungal species was performed with lower concentration of clove oil, which is harmless to humans, (0.75%) than the fungicides.
Excavation, Fungi, Bio-deterioration, Clove oil, Sterilization
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