| Egyptian Journal of Archeological and Restoration Studies


EJARS (Established 2011)

Volume 13 ,issue 2 | Summer and Autumn 2023 | Pages : 211-221

TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS, DAMAGE AND CONSERVATION OF SOME POTTERY ARTIFACTS FROM TELL RAWD ISKANDER, ISMAILIA, EGYPT

Document Type: Original Article

DOI: 10.21608/ejars.2023.330904

pages: 211-221

Authors:
Kamel, W.
Conservation dept., Faculty of Archaeology, Zagazig Univ., Sharkia, Egypt.

Abstract:
The archaeological pottery extracted from Tell Rawd Iskander in Ismailia is dated back to the New Kingdom. Different examinations and analyses were conducted, such as stereomicroscope examin-ation, polarized microscope, microbiological examination, scanning electron microscope equipped with X-ray energy dispersion unit (SEM/ EDX), and X-ray diffraction. The research identified a tech-nological process proving that the clay used in archaeological pottery was Nile clay. Tempers were sand, pottery powder, limestone powder "calcite, dolomite", and burnt straw. The forming technique was the potter wheel technique. Surface treatment is a slip layer and red wash. The burning atmosphere inside the kiln was oxidizing for the first and second pottery objects, and it was reduced for the third pottery shard. The pottery texture was fine to coarse fabric. Furthermore, the research paper proved that pottery artifacts were subjected to various damage processes resulting from different environmental factors. Most damage manifestations were surface deformation by soil sediments, iron stains, soot, and fungal growth. Pottery objects also suffered from crystallization of salts "chlorides, sulfates, carbonates, and phosphates", cracking, fracture, weakness, gaps, peeling, separation of grains, and breaking. The archaeological pottery in Tell Rawd Iskander in Ismailia was treated. Hairbrushes removed free fragile sediments. Various metal scalpels cleaned firmly attached sediments. Furthermore, clay deposits were removed by a mixture of distilled water, acetone, and ethyl alcohol in a ratio of 1:1:1. EDTA cleaned lime deposits, whereas mora poultice extracted carbonate and gypsum salts. Fungal infections were treated by nano silver oxide (0.5 %). Strengthening archaeological pottery was carried out using nano-silica (0.5%); it was applied by the spraying method. Paralloid B 82 (50%) was used in assembling pottery shards. Rep-lacement was conducted by a mixture of micro-ballon and pottery powder.

Keywords:
Microstructure Clay Additives Texture Burning Damage Nano silica

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