PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF IRON AGE POTTERY FROM JNENEH AND TELL ABU AL-KHARAZ, JORDAN
Document Type: Original Article
Mayyas, A. 1 (*), Al-Naddaf, M. 2 , Khrisat, B. 1 , Douglas, Kh. 3 , 4 , Bany-Yaseen, I. 5 & Al-Ajlouny, F. 3
1 Conservation dept., Queen Rania Faculty of Tourism and Heritage, The Hashemite Univ., Zarqa, Jordan,
2 Conservation and Management of Cultural Resources dept., Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology, Yarmouk Univ., Jordan,
3 Sustainable Tourism, dept., Queen Rania Faculty of Tourism and Heritage, The Hashemite Univ., Zarqa, Jordan,
4 Archaeology dept., College of Arts and Social Sciences, Sultan Qaboos Univ., Al-Khoud, Oman,
5 Institute of Earth and Environmental Science, Al al-Bayt Univ., Mafraq, Jordan
The main purpose of this preliminary study is to establish the rela-tionship between the mineralogical and chemical homogeneity of Iron Age pottery vessels from Jneneh in North-Central Jordan and Tell Abu Al-Kharaz in North-West Jordan, as well as to investigate the technological level of production of these vessels found at the two sites. Potsherds were subjected to examination using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Polarized light microscopy (PLM) and X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), in order to determine the major and minor elements, as well as the mineral content of these potsherds. The results showed high homogeneity in chemical and mineralogical composition in Jneneh potsherds, and this indicates that the mother pottery vessels were manufactured using the same source of raw materials and the manufacturing techniques were not altered with time. Contrarily, high differences in chemical and mineralogical compositions were observed in Tell Abu Al-Kharaz potsherds, leading to the expectation that Tell Abu Al-Kharaz samples were manufactured using different sources of raw materials. The presence of primary Calcite crystals may indicate that the initial firing temperature of all the samples from the two sites did not exceed 800 oC. In addition, in all the samples, Quartz and Chert were crushed before being intentionally added to the clay used for the pottery production. For the purpose of increasing the clay plasticity and decreasing the shrinkage upon drying, bone fra-gments (Fluorapatite) were added. Some samples from Tell Abu Al-Kharaz indicated that the source of raw materials used for making pottery vessels came from the Upper Cretaceous deposits based on the presence of Foraminifer microfossils, Planulina Nac-atochensis. Furthermore, the occasional presence of basalt-forming minerals such as Augite and Plagioclase in some samples from Tell Abu Al-Kharaz indicates that basaltic grinding tools were possibly utilised for preparing the raw materials of pottery vessels.
Iron Age Pottery Potsherd, XRF Chemical Composition XRD PLM Mineralogical Composition, Jneneh Tell Abu Al-Kharaz.
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