NEW 19TH CENTURY DEFENSIVE ARCHITECTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS IN EGYPT: THE BASTION SYSTEM (HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS)
Document Type: Original Article
Islamic Archaeology dept, Faculty of Archaeology, Fayoum Univ., Fayoum, Egypt
Impressive fortification and renovation work was carried out in Egypt in Mehmet 'Ali's reign (1805- 1848); the pasha rebuilt the old forti-fications, and erected new forts according to the new developments of weapons and defensive systems. So, he recruited the European scientific and military cadres to seeking their services. Therefore, the military architecture of his reign was distinguished with the European influences from Turkey, Italy, France and Albania. In other words, many new and uncommon architectural elements have imported to the Egyptian military architecture in the first of 19th century. The innovation introduced into military architecture by Mehmet 'Ali is the regular designs of the external and internal lines of the buildings, and the types of the towers to be compatible with attack and defensive weapons. This new type of military architecture was called the bastion system. The article's primary purpose is discussing: the universal features of military fortifications of 19th century in Egypt by tracing the European influences and follows the origins of the fortification designs of Mehmet' Ali which so-called the bastion system. These fortifications carried out some relations on structure, designs, plans, and elements belonged to the prototypes of the European styles, like the Venetian, Ottoman and Frankish styles which transformed directly and indirectly by Mehmet 'Alito Egypt in the beginning of the 19th century. The study willed fine the types of the most important military architectural designs dating back to the nineteenth century in Egypt and tracing its origins in Europe. Also will enumerate the channels which imported this new technology and architectural features to Egypt and investigating the factors which had been arrived from deferent European sources, such as the raise and the personal vision of Mehmet 'Ali, the educational missions to European countries, the European scientific and military cadres and the field experiences of the Pasha in the deferent countries of Ottoman Empire.
Bastion system Fortification Mehmet' Ali Military architecture Defensive system
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