PRINTING MOLDS OF PAPER MONEY OF THE KHOREZM PEOPLE'S SOVIET REPUBLIC
Document Type: Original article
Islamic archaeology dept. Faculty of Archeology, Cairo Univ., Giza, Egypt
By the end of the 13th AH/19th AD century and the beginning of the 14th AH/20th AD century, Khorezm witnessed an important phase of its history, which ended in the Russian occupation, the abolition of the Khiva Khan ateregime and the proclamation of the People's Republic of Khorezm in 1339 AH/1920 AD. During that period, the monetary system underwent major changes as the silk and paper currencies began to emerge and the local currency was converted from the tenga, tilla and felus into the Russian ruble. This study aims to deal with a set of metal molds used to print the banknotes of the People's Republic of Khorezm during the period of 1922- 1923 by means of a set of bronze molds preserved in the Museum of Ichan Qala in Khiva, where this period witnessed the spread of paper money. The study tackles these molds through the identification of raw materials, methods of industry, techniques and stages of printing, in addition to the inscriptions printed on them and other decorations, emblems and symbols, with the analysis of their contents, along with a comparison of these templates with models of the remaining paper money, which represent the categories of these molds.
Khorezm; Paper Money; Printing Molds; Seals; Tenga; Tilla; Felus
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